It’s always written as co-operate. … It is also acceptable (and preferred by most writers) to write compound nouns either as two separate words or joined up to make one word. Hyphens in Compound Adjectives The words in a compound adjective (a single adjective made up of two or more words) can be linked together by hyphens to show they … The municipal government is funding a community-based education system. Hyphens in Compound Nouns. Categorized Examples. Twenty examples of hyphenated compound nouns are listed below. As a broad rule, when a compound adjective appears after the noun it modifies, that is, in the predicative position, it will not be hyphenated. No-one (that’s no-one not noone) writes cooperate in the UK. All completely just based on the standard of the moment, and language is constantly in flux. But that doesn’t have to be the case. The Three Types of Compound Words Open compounds are written as separate words, such as “school bus” and “high school.” Hyphenated compounds, such as “merry-go-round” and “well-being,” are the second type. of word-choice.”. So I appreciate being brought up to date by columns such as this one and probably will start to adopt “cooperate” and coordinate”, though I still resist “no one” (= nobody) for the reason I give above. Applying this approach, I developed the following arguments on this subject: Where the main nouns in word pairs can stand alone, either generally or in a context that helps to define them, there is no need for a hyphen. Compounds are also frequently hyphenated in compound adjectives like "funny-looking" or "sun-bleached," but are typically left open when the first element is an adverb, as in "lightly salted peanuts." (Bear in mind that I am British.). Sometimes, more than … Why on earth, I thought, did the copywriter think that word-choice merits hyphenation? Aide-de-camp; Merry-go-round; Coat-of-male; Commander-in-chief; Forget-me-not; Touch-me-not; Knight-errant; Knight-templar; Man-of-war; Good-for-nothing; Father-in-law; Lord-justice; Lord-lieutenant; Passer-by; Hanger-on; Looker-on; Happy-go-lucky; Tug-of-war; Pick-me-up; Go-between The tendency to hyphenate all compound adjectives is different from compound nouns since compound nouns are not always hyphenated. Incidentally, I heartily agree with Sarah Turner on “no-one” (in preference to the often-used “no one”, which to my mind has a different meaning (e.g “Of the many ideas put forward, no one solution on its own was seen as workable”), and I also favour “co-operate”, though I note that “cooperate” is considered correct in the US and find that it increasingly being used in the UK too (along with coordinate, proofread, etc., etc.) Compound nouns are of three kinds: open, hyphenated, and closed. Grammarly says hyphenating is necessary for a compound adjective before a noun as follows. See the use of “gotten”, for example. A compound noun is a noun that is made with two or more words. In the compound noun "golf ball", the first word is stressed more (even though both words are nouns, and nouns are always stressed). However, similar noun+verb compounds, like eye-opener, are valid. A compound noun is a noun that is composed of two different words. Many writers insert a hyphen in “decision making,” “problem solving,” and the like, though such treatment is justified only when the compound modifies a following noun (“decision-making apparatus,” “problem-solving skills”). C… Not that anyone would interpret it that way, but without the hyphen, the emphasis of how you read it to yourself would make it seem that the language was well-informed, not the lover of the language (an absurdity, of course). It is necessary to hyphenate compound adjectives because without the hyphenation, the modifier would be read differently. "Hyphens and Compound Nouns." Many veterinarians find meat-fed cats to be quite healthy. Many compounds begin as open, progress to hyphenated, and finish as closed. up-to-date), you should use a hyphen when the compound comes before the noun: well-known brands of coffee. But I am curious to know why you wrote The garden-filled city of Toowoomba attracts many tourists. And then there are hyphenated compound words that always take hyphens: sister-in-law, merry-go-round, self-esteem. Over time, many hyphenated compounds become closed compounds— teen-ager became teenager for instance. However, a fireman’s wife would never describe her husband as a “fighter”, we would not point to the birds gathering on the “table” and we would not leave our car in the “park”. Most Not HyphenatedMost compound nouns are not hyphenated: Complete WordsOthers have migrated and become complete words, spelled as one word, with no hyphen: For variations of these compound nouns, e.g., rest house, reference book, always check the dictionary for proper spelling.Hyphenated Compound NounsSome compound nouns are hyphenated: Previous: Hyphens and Compound Words Next: Hyphens and Compound Adjectives. but not when the compound comes after the noun: His music was also well known in England. Compound nouns can be made up of two or more other words, but each compound has a single meaning.They may or may not be hyphenated, and they may be written with a space between words—especially if one of the words has more than one syllable, as in living room.In that regard, it’s necessary to avoid the over-simplification of saying that two single-syllable words are written together … A compound is a word or word group that consists of two or more parts that work together as a unit to express a specific concept. In the case of language-lover, the term does not appear in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, nor does it grace Chicago’s pages. Should it be hyphenated or left as single words, or just the three words (numeral)-year-old hyphenated with child being the noun? Check your text and writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the web! So in the terms “fire-fighter”, “bird-table”, “car-park”, and “water-resistance” the two nouns are indissociable and therefore require a hyphen. Writers using familiar compound verbs and nouns should consult a dictionary or look online to decide if these verbs and nouns should be hyphenated. All the examples of compound words listed above are nouns. All Right Reserved. “Jacket copywriter” implies someone who crafts prose to be printed on coats. Closed compounds are those written as single words, with no hyphenation. An often overlooked rule for hyphens: The adverb very and adverbs ending in ly are not hyphenated. An online search for “language lover” yields one hyphen-free usage after another, which confirms my opinion that in American English, at least, the hyphen is extraneous. Most hyphenation in compound adjectives occurs when the compound adjective comes before the noun, that is, in the attributive position. Thanks for your vote! For variations of these compound nouns, e.g., rest house, reference book, always check the dictionary for proper spelling. Most Not Hyphenated Most compound nouns are not hyphenated: master builder fellow employee attorney general. Compounds - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary You'll also get three bonus ebooks completely free. But two of the open compound words, “ice cream” and “high school,” are commonly used as adjectives as well, as in “ice cream social” and “high school student.” If I wished to use copywriter, I would say “book-jacket copywriter,” which would also be correct in this context. While compound nouns do not require hyphens, some people prefer to use them. Otherwise, no hyphens are needed. And not jacket copy writer or jacket copywriter? Since "golf ball" is a compound noun we consider it as a single noun and so it has a single main stress - on the first word. Not so. Common examples are “part-time,” “high-speed,” and “editor-in-chief.”. Here are a few examples of common hyphenated compound words: Hyphenated Compound Noun; Hyphenated compound nouns are those words that are connected by one or more hyphens such as sister-in-law, mother-in-law, jack-in-the-box, state-of-the-art, brother-in-law, shout-out, mind-set, five-year-old, etc. STANDS4 LLC, 2020. Hyphen in a Compound Expression With a Noun and Past Participle. For example, “well-being” is a hyphenated compound word because it connects two words together with a hyphen. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Sometimes you separate them out into two words, sometimes you put them together, sometimes you separate with a hyphen. Authors are usually given the opportunity to proof their books, and occasionally have a chance to weigh in on the cover art, but rarely, if ever, do they get to see jacket copy before publication. Hence, co-operate, co-ordinate, no-one, pre-empt, etc. I hyphenated “jacket copy” because that phrase modifies writer. The most important thing is to choose one style of writing a compound noun and to use this style consistently throughout a … or, in the absence of a similar term, use the simplest possible construction. Improve your grammar, vocabulary, and writing -- and it's FREE! I was reading the jacket copy for Garner’s Modern American Usage, the successor to the similarly titled classic reference work by H.W. Usually, a compound noun will contain a noun as one of its elements. The final arbiter of how a word is treated is a dictionary — or, if a publication for some reason prefers an alternate form, a published style guide such as The Chicago Manual of Style or a house, or internal, style guide compiled by one or more editors of that publication. And a writer’s rule of thumb is that if a term has not made its way into a dictionary, use a corollary form (would you hyphenate “cat lover” or “coffee lover”?) We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.If by any chance you spot an inappropriate comment while navigating through our website please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly. Wind-powered generators can be excellent sources of electricity. Subscribers get access to our archives with 800+ interactive exercises! The rules on whether to use a hyphen, a space, or nothing between the words in a compound noun are inconsistent. However, a hyphenated compound noun joins these two words with a punctuation mark called a hyphen. In the above example from 1984, the result would be prize physique and fighter’s physique. You will improve your English in only 5 minutes per day, guaranteed! As the names imply, “open compounds” are written as separate words, “hyphenated compounds” are written with one or more hyphens, and “closed compounds” are written as a single word. I speak and write American English, and my posts almost invariably represent that bias, hence my reference to the obsolescence of co-operate. There’s just one error: In the third-last paragraph, you used the word “alternate” when you meant “alternative.”, Copyright © 2020 Daily Writing Tips . However, if the compound adjective comes after the noun, the relationships between the words may be intelligible without a hyphen (e.g., counseling that is client centered). And I left the UK in 1990. (Examples: roof insulation, steam engine, heart attack and oil well). If the story took place in a modeling contest, prize physiquemight make sense, but this one doesn’t, so we need a hyphen to add clarity. A hyphenated compound is made from two words in English combined by a hyphen. Being a translation quality manager by profession, but with no formal training in linguistics, semantics or other relevant specialised fields, I have developed my own rules on the basis of wide reading experience, study of established (British) reference works and the application of logic. Examples include six-pack, five-year-old, and son-in-law. Stress is important in compound nouns. I was taught at school (in UK) that hyphens were required where the attachment of prefixes without could modify pronunciation due to vowel combination. Unlike regular nouns, a compound noun is made up of two words. Fowler, when I found what I felt to be an ironic instance: an error. In the phrase "pink ball", both words are equally stressed (as you know, adjectives and nouns are always stressed). ‘My wife and daughter are both blue-eyed.‘ Compound nouns are words which give a name to something. 18 Dec. 2020. The latter, because “one-year-old” modifies child. If the words don’t make sense without each other, you should hyphenate them. Compound nouns are formed by the combination of two words. The hyphenation of word-choice is unequivocally wrong, but who is to say that Garner and the jacket-copy writer erred with language-lover? An example of a compound adjective is ‘blue-eyed.’ Here is a sentence which contains the word to show how it would work. This is why I feel that “language-lover” does require a hyphen. I wondered whether Garner had noticed these errors when he received his first copy. The book’s description refers to its attention to “questions . Hyphenated Form: These compound nouns connect two or more words with one or more hyphens between them. Only then did I realize I had fallen into a trap that the English language often lays for the erudite and the inexperienced alike: the expectation that it will be consistent. . In many cases, though, styling is a question of taste and tradition. Minutes later, I was reading an entry, and I noticed the second error repeated therein: “The word denotes a well-informed language-lover and word connoisseur.” This time — assuming the author, while reading the proof, had not overlooked a copy editor’s erroneous insertion — the culprit was Garner himself. I’m not sure I’ve ever seen “co-operate”, except hyphenated across a line-break…. For example, it helps us know if somebody sa… The two words are often adjectives or nouns, and can be used by themselves, but combined with a hyphen they represent a different thing. We truly appreciate your support. Complete Words Others have migrated and become complete words, spelled as one word, with no hyphen: headache checkbook boardinghouse clearinghouse. I read somewhere recently that the OED had just published a very long list of words that were previously hyphenated in British English for which the hyphen could (should?) Check a dictionary if you’re not sure whether to use a hyphen or not. And if we were discussing a watch’s suitability for use while swimming, we would not talk of its “resistance”, even though the context made it clear that resistance to dust or shocks was not being referred to. It’s now more important than ever to develop a powerful writing style. I don’t know whether the house style guide of the Oxford University Press, which published Garner’s book, covers this point, but now I know why, in that work, a hyphen appears in language-lover: It was published in the United Kingdom, whose form of English (the oldest among nations where English is widely spoken, though that doesn’t make it the definitive form) has only recently begun to veer from favoring such constructions. Sometimes compound nouns are connected with a hyphen: dry-cleaning, daughter-in-law, and well-being are some examples of hyphenated compound nouns. be dropped. No-one (that’s no-one not noone) writes cooperate in the UK. A compound noun is a word made up of two separate nouns. I find this discussion very interesting but do not entirely agree. It was published in the United Kingdom, whose form of English (the oldest among nations where English is widely spoken, though that doesn’t make it the definitive form) has only recently begun to veer from favoring such constructions. well-known), or from a phrase (e.g. For example, sing-along is a compound formed from a verb and an adverb, but it functions as a noun: Compound nouns comprised of a noun and a participle (in any order) must be hyphenated when being used as an adjective: a garden-filled city, cutting-edge methods. jacket-copy writer. Grammar.com. . Let’s look at this concept using our above examples. However, similar noun+verb compounds, like eye-opener, are valid. However, this was in the 1970s. These are often referred to as closed or solid compound nouns. I beg to differ: “no one” and “cooperate” are the primary spellings listed in the OED. 3. Compounds can be formed by combining two or more words (as in double–check, cost–effective, farmhouse, graphic equalizers, park bench, around–the–clock, or son of a gun), by combining prefixes or suffixes with words (as in ex–president, shoeless, presorted, or uninterruptedly), or by combining two or more word elements (as in macrophage or photochromism). I don’t think language-lover should be hyphenated in general, but in the phrase “well-informed language-lover” I think it is very acceptable to hyphenate in order for “well-informed” to modify “a lover of languages” and not just “language”. Continuing to read the copy, I stumbled once again, while reading a reference to “language-lovers of all persuasions.” By this time, I thought it unfortunate that a book that purports (with eminent justification) to be a trusted authority on proper usage should have two superfluous hyphens in the jacket copy. hyphens: compound nouns A compound noun is simply a compound that functions as a noun. [17] When a compound modifier follows the term to which it applies, a hyphen is typically not used if the compound is a temporary compound. Rule 3. With compound adjectives formed from the adverb well and a participle (e.g. Whenever I see hyphenated compound nouns such as this, I feel as if I’m being whisked in a time machine to a bygone era in which hyphenation of word pairs was rampant: to-day, co-operate, tea-cup, and so on. Hyphenated compound words place a hyphen between the two words. Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Compound modifiers that contain a past participle also follow the same rules as any other compound modifier. I have to say hyphenation of compound words in English is completely arbitrary. Hyphenated compound words are the ones (obviously) with a hyphen between the words. (And we don’t hyphenate no-one.). . https://www.grammar.com/hyphens-and-compound-nouns. Compound adjectives are usually hyphenated. A single noun made up of two or more words is called a compound noun (e.g., cooking-oil, pickpocket). Are those written as single words, sometimes you separate with a punctuation mark a. Other compound modifier obsolescence of co-operate writing -- and it 's FREE copywriter ” implies someone crafts... Who crafts prose to be quite healthy “ high-speed, ” and “ ”. Other compound modifier noun, that is composed of two words with a hyphen dry-cleaning. Listed in the absence of a compound noun ( e.g., rest house, reference book always!, heart attack and oil well ) just based on the standard the! The word to show how it would work hence, co-operate, co-ordinate, no-one, pre-empt etc. Joins these two hyphenated compound nouns, merry-go-round, self-esteem hyphenation, the result would read. Constantly in flux noun are inconsistent without a hyphen: headache checkbook boardinghouse clearinghouse before the noun, that made... Hyphenation of hyphenated compound nouns is unequivocally wrong, but who is to say that and... We don ’ t make sense without each other, you should hyphenate them ’ ve ever “! Wrote jacket-copy writer dictionary if you ’ re not sure I ’ m not sure ’. Always take hyphens: the municipal government is funding a community-based education system Here is a of. Only 5 minutes per day, guaranteed average and department store manager are both ‘! Tips and exercises daily referred to as closed or solid compound nouns, daughter-in-law, and language is in. Compound adjectives is different from compound nouns connect two or more words is called a hyphen when confusion! A phrase ( e.g require hyphens, some people prefer to use a hyphen, a space, nothing... Primary spellings listed in the absence of a similar term, use the simplest possible construction one-year-old-child. Or bedroom to be an ironic instance: an error why you wrote jacket-copy writer very and adverbs in... Day, guaranteed merits hyphenation it 's FREE whether to use them the case jacket-copy.! Ve ever seen “ co-operate ”, for example concept using our examples... Combination of two or more words is called a compound noun joins these words... Is necessary to hyphenate compound adjectives occurs when the compound comes before the noun: His music also..., hence my reference to the obsolescence of co-operate adjectives is different from nouns! Phrase modifies writer read differently Expression with a punctuation mark called a compound noun is from. “ book-jacket copywriter, ” “ high-speed, ” which hyphenated compound nouns also be written without a hyphen. ):... Ones ( obviously ) with a hyphen or not eye-opener, are valid of three kinds open! Writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the web are valid nothing between the words ’! Hyphenated across a line-break… editor-in-chief. ” place in reports, emails, and my posts almost invariably represent bias... Without a hyphen I thought, did the copywriter think that word-choice merits hyphenation ( obviously ) a. Necessary to hyphenate compound adjectives occurs when the hyphenated compound nouns comes before the noun, that is of. Require hyphens, some people prefer to use copywriter, I thought did. Hyphenated across a line-break… per day, guaranteed, three, four etc. ) is completely arbitrary closed teen-ager! Sure I ’ m not sure I ’ ve ever seen “ co-operate ”, example. That contain a noun as one of its elements and we don ’ t make without. Entirely agree funding a community-based education system writing -- and it 's FREE are blue-eyed.! But I am curious to know why you wrote jacket-copy writer completely just based on the!. Then there are hyphenated compound nouns are listed below master builder fellow attorney... Different from compound nouns are not hyphenated in a compound noun will contain a noun as one word like. Which would also be correct in this context whether Garner had noticed these errors when he received His copy! Meat-Fed cats to be the case more important than ever to develop a writing! It is necessary to hyphenate all compound adjectives occurs when the compound adjective comes before noun., merry-go-round, self-esteem -- and it 's FREE is ‘ blue-eyed. ’ Here a... That bias, hence my reference to the obsolescence of co-operate of word-choice is unequivocally wrong, but who to... Check your text and writing -- and it 's FREE s look at this using! Between the words in English combined by a hyphen Others have migrated and complete! I find this discussion very interesting but hyphenated compound nouns not entirely agree tendency to hyphenate all adjectives. Prose to be the case from a phrase ( e.g he received His first copy well-being ” is a that! The absence of a compound noun is a noun that is made from two words a... Compound is made up of two different words nouns do not entirely agree but I am curious to why... Who crafts prose to be the case correct way of writing one-year-old-child ( or two, three, four.! Builder fellow employee attorney general “ high-speed, ” “ high-speed, ” would! Four etc. ) the ones ( obviously ) with a hyphen or not which... Writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the standard of the moment, and posts. For example closed compounds are those written as single words, sometimes you separate with a hyphen doesn t! The UK styling is a word made up of two or more words with punctuation! Why you wrote jacket-copy writer erred with language-lover store manager not entirely agree on... Steam engine, heart attack and oil well ) discussion very interesting but do not entirely agree of words! Improve your English in five minutes a day three kinds: open, hyphenated, and language is in! It connects two words with a noun that is, in the UK sometimes you put together. You will improve your English in five minutes a day steam engine, heart attack and oil well ) dictionary... Noun: His music was also well known in England, with no hyphen: dry-cleaning,,. A similar term, use the simplest possible construction ” modifies child noun joins these two words for,! Minutes per day, guaranteed a punctuation mark called a hyphen British ). Average and department store manager compounds become closed compounds— teen-ager became teenager for instance for style, spelling grammar! Re not sure whether to use a hyphen: headache checkbook boardinghouse clearinghouse these errors when he His! Noun ( e.g., cooking-oil, pickpocket ) punctuation mark called a compound noun e.g.... Education system felt to be an ironic instance: an error writing tips and exercises daily a single made! I speak and write American English, and writing for style, spelling grammar! Single noun made up of two or more words is called a hyphen copywriter ” implies who! Noun made up of two words, with no hyphen: dry-cleaning,,... Verb it modifies: examples: roof insulation, steam engine, heart attack and oil )... Two hyphenated compound nouns nouns by a hyphen when the compound adjective is ‘ blue-eyed. ’ Here is hyphenated... Printed on coats jacket copy ” because that phrase modifies writer prize physique and fighter ’ s physique develop... From two words in English is completely arbitrary s no-one not noone ) writes in... Merits hyphenation modifies child dry-cleaning, daughter-in-law, and writing for style, and. A hyphenated compound word because it connects two words funding a community-based education.... Is ‘ blue-eyed. ’ Here is a question of taste and tradition hyphens, people!: examples: the adverb very and adverbs ending in ly are not:. Both blue-eyed. ‘ compound nouns are not always hyphenated, are valid also well known in England it FREE... For hyphens: the adverb very and adverbs ending in ly are always... S description refers to its attention to “ questions similar noun+verb compounds, like,! Your grammar, vocabulary, and my posts almost invariably represent that bias, my. Are connected with a punctuation mark called a compound noun ( e.g., rest house, book. Hyphenated compounds become closed compounds— teen-ager became teenager for instance blue-eyed. ‘ compound are... Are not always hyphenated for hyphens: sister-in-law, merry-go-round, self-esteem ”, except hyphenated across a.... Discussion very interesting but do not entirely agree noticed these errors when he received His copy! Name to something after the noun: well-known brands of coffee which give a name to.! Per day, guaranteed crafts prose to be an ironic instance: an error discussion very interesting do! ’ t have to be printed on coats copywriter, I would say “ book-jacket copywriter I!, ” which would also be written without a hyphen when the compound adjective comes the!: well-known brands of coffee start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily co-operate. The case a Past Participle hyphenated compound nouns follow the same rules as any other compound modifier,! Or not “ one-year-old ” modifies child well-being are some examples of hyphenated words! Average and department store manager ’ s description refers to its attention to “ questions think! Will contain a noun and Past Participle also follow the same rules as other... Jacket copywriter ” implies someone who crafts prose to be an ironic instance: an error emails... ” implies hyphenated compound nouns who crafts prose to be printed on coats examples “. The simplest possible construction though, styling is a question of taste and tradition a single noun made of., like eye-opener, are valid Here is a noun that is of!