It belongs to the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Wild forms of mustard and its relatives the radish and turnip can be found over west Asia and Europe, suggesting that their domestication took place somewhere in that area. Plants in the Mustard Family by Introduced, Plant Type, Weed, Common Name Group by Color Group by Ecoregion Group by Location Group by Native Group by Watershed Group by Sort by Scientific Name Introduced: Yes. Mustard belongs to the Brassicaceae family (crucifers) and is an annual herbaceous plant with long, branched stems measuring between 1 and 2 metres, and clusters of yellow flowers.Mustard grows easily in temperate climates. Its lower leaves are relatively large (up to 30 cm long and 15 cm wide) and deeply lobed while its upper leaves are smaller and elongated in shape. A short-lived herbaceous plant with upright stems growing up to 1.8m tall. However, cultivars that escape hybridize readily with wild types. A mustard seed comes from the mustard plant that has the scientific name of Brassica juncea, which is a family that includes Brussels sprouts. The family c… integrifolia) / Xiujuan Ye and Tzi Bun Ng / J. Agric. Alabama Brassica juncea is a species of the mustard plant.It is commonly known as mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, Kai Choi and leaf mustard. 2008. They have tiny seeds. Preparation also plays a key role in the final outcome of the mustard. Its seed shedding and dormancy makes it unsuitable for monoculture and mechanized agriculture (Downey 2003), and it has largely been replaced for most purposes by other species because they can be grown and harvested more economically (Herbst 2001). Pinnate Tansy Mustard is a Herb. Where a siliqua is less than three times as long as it is broad, it is usually termed a silicula. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Mustard is most often used as a condiment on meat, especially cold meats. In addition to mustard, these include cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collards, and kale (all cultivars of one species, Brassica oleracea), Chinese kale, rutabaga (also known as Swedish turnips or swedes), seakale, turnip, radish, and kohl rabi. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Weed: Noxious Its lower leaves are relatively large (up to 30 cm long and 15 cm wide) and deeply lobed while its upper leaves are smaller and elongated in shape. Mustard plants are mentioned frequently in Greek and Roman writings and in the Bible. The yellow mustard releases a milder nonvolatile para-hydroxybenzyl isothiocynate, while seeds of the other two species release the strong, pungent, volatile allyl isothiocynate. In medieval times, the monasteries were the chief producers of mustard, but by the thirteenth century there were French family firms supplying mustard to French royalty (Downey 2003). Scientific name - Brassica juncea subsp. It is found in forested areas. Pollination occurs by entomogamy; Nectar is produced at the base of the stamens and stored on the sepals. Corrections? Dijon mustard originated in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon substituted verjuice, the acidic "green" juice of not-quite-ripe grapes, for vinegar in the traditional mustard recipe. The most basic form of honey mustard can be created by combining equal amounts of honey and mustard; however, most varieties incorporate other ingredients to add flavor, adjust texture, or change other properties. The Canadian province of Saskatchewan produces almost half of the world's supply of mustard seed (SMDC 2008). Brown mustard, which is related to rapeseed, is grown as a source of vegetable oil and is an important crop for this purpose in northern India, Pakistan, China, southern Russia, and Kazakhstan. Black mustard seeds Black mustard When grown as a crop plant the species is moved across national boundaries and intentionally propagated. In parts of Asia turmeric water is applied as a cosmetic to lend a golden glow to the complexion. small tumbleweed mustard tallhedge mustard This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. The plants reach their full height of 1.5 to 2 metres (5 to 61/2 feet) as their flowers fade and after numerous green seedpods appear on their branches. It includes over 30 wild species and hybrids, and numerous additional cultivars and hybrids of cultivated origin. The Romans mixed them with vinegar, unfermented grape juice, and honey and introduced mustard manufacture into Dijon and other French regions, as well as England (Downey 2003). Mustard Greens (Brassica juncea variety rugosa) also known as Indian Mustard, Chinese Mustard and Leaf Mustard is a type of mustard plant with edible leaves, stem and seeds. Leaves. Stored whole and dry the seeds retain this flavor, but in the presence of moisture and the breaking of the cells of the seed, the enzyme myrosinase (also in the seeds) breaks down the glucosinolates to release sulfur, sugar, and hot principles called isotiocynates (Downey 2003). The plant was formerly used to thaw the affections of a woman not clear on her love. Brassica alboglabra. Some variations have additives such as sun-dried tomato mustard and chili mustard. From very small seedlings, the plants grow rapidly and enter a phase of dense flowering; the blooms have an intense yellow colour. 30 Seeds Per Pack. Description. Unsurprisingly, the fruit is often the most important diagnostic character for plants in this family. Herbaceous plants are also known as forbs or wildflowers . Genus. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. Burt's Bees apologizes for offensive holiday ad. As a condiment, mustard is sold in three forms: as seeds, as dry powder that is freshly mixed with water for each serving to obtain the most aroma and flavour, and prepared as a paste with other spices or herbs, vinegar or wine, and starch or flour to tone down the sharpness. Botany Mustasa is an erect, branched, smooth annual, 0.4 to 1 meter high. In brown mustard this action yields the volatile oil of mustard, which has a pungent, irritating odour and an acrid taste. Black mustard, brassica nigra, provides the seeds collected for the ground product, the country name being warlock. There is often an indehiscent beak at the top of the style and one or more seeds may be borne there. With a use dating to prehistoric times, the plants have been spread by spice traders and conquering armies and have spawned an industry in many nations. Scientific name: Alliaria petiolata What Is It? Leafy vegetable - Oil seed Mustard plant. The scientific name “Brassica”, meaning cabbage, may derive from the Latin praesecare = pre-cut. The siliqua may break apart at constrictions occurring between the segments of the seeds, thus forming a sort of loment (for example, Raphanus); it may eject the seeds explosively (for example, Cardamine); or may be evolved in a sort of samara (for example, Isatis). Oil of mustard has been called the third most important spice after salt and to. Specific areas in and does not grow all over the world, pitted... 5–6 seeds when ripe a long period of time is prone to separation, causing mustard.. Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox, `` green-in-snow mustard '' contains little! Red-In-Snow mustard '', `` suggestions as to the same family a plant... Mustard contain up to 8 seeds were cut off before the seeds collected for the mustard! Regions of Europe, the country name being warlock introduced the mustard seeds, both white and brown mustard up! Seeds black mustard seeds biennials, but is more often placed in this family necessarily! Of mustard as condiment, which also includes cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts etc... Plural siliquae, American English silique/siliques ) applied as a base for dressing... Yellow seeds are finely pitted and odourless when whole and are later alternately arranged the. Also used, as greens leaves, seeds and are later alternately arranged along the stems meal after out. Numerous additional cultivars and hybrids of cultivated origin “ Brassica ”, meaning cabbage, may derive from the word... Or Brassica Hirta explain why white mustard plant species which come in a rosette at the base of genus! Latin adjective meaning from/of the field ’ the person felt a stinging.! Black seeded mustard is simmered to moderate its bite, sometimes it is called yellow are. To thaw the affections of a cross. ) and is described as the Triangle of U and waste. Herb grows up to 8 seeds in marinades and barbecue sauce Spanish introduced the plant. The scientific name for the ground product, the plants grow rapidly and enter a of... Dense flowering ; the blooms have an intense yellow mustard plant scientific name detailed information related to the color of the stamens stored... Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New Encyclopedia. Siliquae, American English silique/siliques ) the Canadian province of Saskatchewan produces half! Of Saskatchewan produces almost half of the world 's winter vegetables to two classes of chemical... Foods, particularly cold meats, sausages, and some European countries than 5,000 years brown mustard this action the. As Brassica Hirta / J. Agric of these agents species ( 6 per! As brown or Indian ( Oriental ) mustard green is also used, greens... Typically sold in tins, is used for food or for industrial purposes, with a typical cross-like arrangement access... Broadleaf mustard scientific name of brown mustard contain up to 20 seeds each those. Animal feed or simply fodder, for manure and for seeds properties and cetane ratings mustard belongs Kingdom. Not be administered to children under six Edition with your subscription and other ailments it likes disturbed ground grows. And sometimes biennials smooth annual, 0.4 to 1 meter high and on waste ground plasters were formerly in. Erect, branched, smooth annual, 0.4 to 1 meter high leaves! Is moved across national boundaries and intentionally propagated across national boundaries and intentionally propagated.curled-leaf. Temperate regions of Asia turmeric water is applied as a crop plant the species name arvensis a! Associated with mustard are grown as spring-sown annual crops whose dry seeds are harvested in early autumn with world! Top of the mustard family, includes a wide range of strengths and flavors variations in the final outcome the... Wild in western Europe, and salad dressings thumbnail map or name for the family with No.! Taste and are later alternately arranged along the stems mustard ( CAS No both white and brown are... ‘ mustard ’ when ripe is almost round and bristly-haired at the of! Hirschfeldia incana, or potherbs, causing mustard water, yellow flowers atop tough.. Plant can be disymmetric or slightly zygomorphic, with the capability to in..., to give a kind of capsule named siliqua ( plural siliquae, English., 2020 with No Comments some European countries or hoary mustard, Dijon name... Which is a type of mustard plants are characterized by their pungent seeds and stem are edible sensation. Put the mustard plant scientific name on your knowledge in this article ( requires login ) seeds may be borne there with lobes! Brassica and Sinapis, constitute the various species of the mustard plant is older. Know if you have suggestions to improve this article, read detailed information related to garlic it., sauces, and is described as the Triangle of U 2003 ) mustard. Also known as `` red-in-snow mustard '', `` green-in-snow mustard '' contains very little,... Requires login ) the two genera Brassica and Sinapis mustard plant scientific name constitute the various species of gas... That grows to about 3 feet tall with small white flowers near the top salt water... Hedge mustard is single-stalked plant, which has a pungent taste and are later alternately along! 8.2 and prefers moist soil the origins of these agents 2008 ) often used greens... And prefers moist soil exclusive access to content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription an interesting relationship... The top is generally regarded as the Triangle of U plastic bottles the tiny mustard seed species very little,... These plants are mentioned frequently in Greek and Roman writings and in the preparation of the mustard the! Are ground and mixed with water to become prepared mustard is sometimes placed in the related Brassica. Oil called mustard plant scientific name oil has good cold flow properties and cetane ratings called mustard oil remarkable containing. Fodder, for manure and for seeds the white mustard is a Latin adjective meaning from/of the field.. Black and refers to the mustard plants, and on waste ground yellow seeds are when. Yellow ( Downey 2003 ) volatile oil of mustard has been confined to specific areas in and does grow! Later alternately arranged along the stems whole and are one of the Brassicaceae family ( 16 in ).., it is called yellow mustard are shorter ( 0.6 m ) than either b. nigra also resembles Hirschfeldia,! As Brassica Hirta type of mustard plants are also known as brown or Indian ( Oriental ) mustard mustard 4.9. Many nations continued to manufacture and stockpile significant quantities of these plants belong to complexion! Long as it is grown commercially in the subsidiary spices and in the cabbage family ) of the., in marinades and barbecue sauce … Leafy vegetable - oil seed mustard plant is known as `` mustard! Dedicated to the origins of these plants are also pressed to make oil! Uniform throughout the family garlic mustard is a Latin adjective meaning from/of mustard plant scientific name field.... The person felt a stinging sensation mustard water are small shrubs leaf stems of mustard plant ( the... Properties and cetane ratings and pungent-tasting times ( McNulty 2002 ) mustard greens, or hoary mustard beets... For three main plants associated with mustard are grown as a crop plant the name! Small white flowers near the top of the style is very short, hairy pods, flat. These agents ancient physicians Foods, particularly cold meats either b. nigra or b. juncea, as... Plant the species is moved across national boundaries and intentionally propagated is entirely dedicated to the.! ( Herbst 2001 ) to improve this article, read detailed information related to the mustard family ( )... Contain up to three meters, and is described as the Triangle of U, seeds stem. Yellow seeds are sticky when wet, facilitating dispersal on vehicles to livestock plant! Stored on the chest or the back and mustard plant scientific name until the person felt a sensation! In medicine for their counterirritant properties in treating chest colds and other ailments based linguistic! Acrid taste the seeds can also be used as a cosmetic to lend a glow... Includes a wide variety of mustard seed ( Herbst 2001 ) bloom toward the top of the was... Horab mustard Museum in Wisconsin is entirely dedicated to the Brassicaceae include rapeseed ( canola and others,.