Second, its inventiveness in reconstituting and refashioning its collective identity and public image. Cities are indeed transformed in the course of history. By the time registration ended on July 31, some 420 applicants (from sixty five countries) had submitted proposals for the competition. Monuments commemorate the memorable and embody the myths of beginnings. Personal memories, autobiographies, nostalgic recollections of one's early childhood and life in gregarious and convivial quarters and neighborhoods of old Beirut are now popular narrative genres. It is then that some of the early symptoms of cosmopolitanism, marked by elements of sophistication and savoir faire in public life, started to surface. Even the media and advertising industry is exploiting such imagery and nostalgic longing to market their products. Physical and social space, in other words, were almost identical. Another mode of retreat or escape from the ugly memories of the war and the drabness or anxieties of the postwar era is the proliferation of kitsch. The massive sustained uprising forced the resignation of the government and precipated a sharply contested political crisis. The setting in postwar Europe is very instructive in this regard. AU - Nic Craith, Máiréad. Thus far the byproducts have been vast in their immediate consequences and promise to be more consequential in their anticipated future reverberations. Space of Harmony is an international project for creating and maintaining a universal cognitive space for network communications and project implementation in the collective intelligence format. As a residence for consul-generals, headquarters for French, American and British missions, and growing center of trade and services it gradually began to attract a cosmopolitan and heterogeneous population. (Yücesoy, Gökbulut,1999). University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania, Urban Studies Program. Search for other works by this author on: This Site. Beirut, is not only grappling with all the trials and tribulations of a postwar setting, local fragmentation and the unsettling manifestations of unresolved regional and global rivalries. The memorial is a special precinct, extruded from life, a segregated enclave where we honor the dead. The art is a high and delicate enterprise, demanding astute judgment about what to keep and what to let go, to salvage or to shred or shelve, to memorialize or to anathematize (Ibid.). During my life, my national society has been theater for a num­ ber of events that I say I "remember," events that I know about only from … A variety of grass-roots movements, citizen and advocacy groups, and voluntary associations have been established recently to address problems related to the preservation and protection of the built environment. But here as well the global and postmodern (i.e., shopping arcades, internet cafes, chat rooms, fast-food franchises and elegant fashionable boutiques) co-exist symbiotically with some of the provincial outlets. They always generate and reawaken sharp and heated debate and, thereby, give vent to layers of hidden hostility and unresolved fear. SPACE AND COLLECTIVE MEMORY * Maria Fragoulaki Abstract: Mycalessus, a city in Boeotia which Thucydides describes as ‘not big’, becomes the stage of one of the most atrocious episodes in the History of the Peloponnesian War. So collective memory refers to the presence of the past in contemporary societies in the form of traces, persistent elements, and the selective, active evocation of the past, … They are also an outcry against the loss of personal autonomy and authenticity. Indeed, in some instance, so-called "postmodern" attributes — i.e., fragmentation, fluid and multiple identities, the mixing of different histories, pastiche, irony, the destruction of the vernacular and provincial — were present in Beirut long before they had appeared elsewhere, including Europe and the US. The English phrase "collective memory" and the equivalent French phrase "la mémoire collective" appeared in the second half of the nineteenth century.The … Daily routines were carried out within clearly defined quarters, and the neighborhood survived as an almost self-sufficient community with which the individual identified. In a fascinating work, Frances Yates (1966) persuasively traced this back to the age of scholasticism and medieval memory where memoria, the conscious evocation of past experience through visual imagery, served to facilitate the spread of devotional learning to laymen. Lamartine, who visited Beirut in 1832, said, for example that the roofs of some houses served as terraces to the others. Such consciousness and proclivity to engage with cosmopolitan encounters were also present in Beirut before the advent of globalism and postmodernity. ual memory and the collective memory have rather limited, but dif­ fering, spatial and temporal boundaries. Within this context, it is understandable how the natural reactions of the Lebanese to all the unbearable atrocities and traumas they were beset with, that they should try to forget, or at least distance themselves from and sanitize, as they appear to be doing, the scars and scares of almost two decades of cruel and senseless violence. Freud's theory of mental process is the antithesis of such an Aristotelian conception of memory. Another compelling reality, with substantial implications for the envisioned role the Bourj can play in providing venues and outlets for forging the desired collective and spatial identities, has much to do with the process of postwar reconstruction. able activities appearance become belong brain cause certain character child collective memory common conceptions concerns consciousness consider continually contrast convention course dates distinct distinguish duration economic elements evoke example existence experience external fact feelings fixed … Introduction The eruption of Mount Merapi in 2010 caused 377 deaths (Rahman, 2015), thousands of refugees, forests and agricultural land destroyed. The massive reconstruction efforts underway, particularly around Beirut's historic center, continue to come across, almost daily finds, which reconfirm this most distinguished heritage of its ancient past. As there are many human groups, there are many types of collective memory, and collective memory … et al. 0 Reviews. In fact, the most definitive symptoms of urbanization — rural exodus and the spill of the population beyond its medieval walls — did not really appear in any substantial form until the 1860's. Boyer, in his book The City of Collective Memory (1994), declares that the city can be defined as a fact of collective memory. Significant changes in the nation’s life, whether social of political, later the collective mind of its citizens. What Barber is, of course, implying here is that if the memories of the war and its atrocities are kept alive, they will continue to reawaken fear and paranoia, particularly among those embittered by it. Geography, location, territorial and spatial identities have become sharper and more meaningful at the psychic and socio-cultural levels. More important, as will be shown later, they may obstruct rational urban planning and zoning. By virtue of its centrality and commanding historic setting — almost akin to an open museum of the World's most ancient civilizations — Beirut's central square has always displayed some curious historical features which account for its survival as a fairly open, pluralistic and cosmopolitan urban district. Ethnic and religious affiliation created relatively homogeneous and compact residential neighborhoods. From medieval times onwards, the destruction of such visual imagery appeared to be tantamount to acts of forgetting (Yates,  1966: 99). In this respect, Beirut offers another grounded and living instance of the production of social space which depart from other common experiences and patterns observed in other settings (see for example, King,  2003; Nasr and Voilet,  2003). Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2018, Maria Fragoulaki published Thucydides Homericus and the episode of Mykalessus (Th. Other research is ongoing in order to deepen our understanding of the interaction between collective and individual memory … Hare, Geoff. By whom and for whom? To reinforce his plea in favor of forgetting as a merciful as well as a mandatory art, Lowenthal makes a distinction between individual and collective forgetting. During the second phase of the competition the finalists are expected to submit their detailed final projects. A central premise of this essay is the belief that urban planning and design, architecture, landscaping, among other overlooked forms of public intervention, can offer effective strategies for healing symptoms of fear and paranoia and transcending parochialism. By Molly Turner Collective Memory Three years after the signing of the Peace Agreement with the FARC, Colombia is grappling with the question of how to remember the 50 year armed conflict, and how to honour victims of it. The question, ‘Why does Thucydides pay so much attention to this local incident?’ has been dealt with … Indeed, one of the central premises of the essay is that we can better understand the emergent socio-cultural identities — even the political and economic transformations — by seeing their manifestations in this ongoing dialectics between place and space. How much and what of the past needs to be retained or restored? collective memory of these groups is based on spatial images. Generations of Lebanese, either directly or vicariously, are still old enough to remember those years. UAE Email: emanassi@hotmail.com Tel 0097150 7390034 Abstract: The landscape of the environment we live in is an image of our common humanity. This was particularly visible in the opening up and receptivity of seemingly local and provincial groups and neighborhoods to novel and mixed life styles and mannerisms. Except for souqs, khans, baths, places of worship and other public buildings which dominated the town, the prevailing house types were flat-roofed farm houses and the traditional two or three-storied, red-tiled villas with elaborate facades and decorative railed stairways and balconies. Bearing this subtle distinction in mind, Arthur Danton, in his assessment of the contested Vietnam Veteran Memorial, situates his observations within the polemics of collective memory or the social art of forgetting. A cursory stroll of the rehabilitated districts of central Beirut, and those under reconstruction, quickly reveal symptoms of such dissonance. Studying the historical layers reveals not just the evolution of the city but also the political views and ideas shaping Sofia’s morphology. At the popular cultural level, this resistance to the threat of disappearance is seen in the revival of folk arts, music, and lore, flea markets, artisan shops, and other such exhibits and galleries. What he termed "remedial oblivion" was a common strategy of 17th century statecraft (Lowenthal,  2001: xi). The international jury, over three days of deliberations, arrived at a short-list of seven finalists. Collective memory is of more than passing academic interest. He writes, intuitively, that "memory is a sort of anti-museum: it is not localizable." First, the Armenian Massacres of 1914 brought over fifty thousand Armenian refugees from Turkey. It is the collective memory of slavery that defines an individual as a “race member,” as Maya Angelou (1976) puts it. It is in this sense that the experience of the Lebanese, particularly their ambivalence regarding how to cope with, let alone incorporate; the barbaric legacy of the war, is not at all unique. Gross density was high — around 300 per hectare — and the town gave an overwhelming impression of congestion. Public Space, Art and Collective Memory Birmingham, 9-10 November 2009 The Third CCVA Annual Conference is to be hosted by School of Art, Birmingham Institute of Art and Design. Persuasive as such pleas on behalf of collective memory are, particularly with regard to their impact on reconstituting the frayed symptoms of social solidarity and national allegiance, a slew of other scholars make equally persuasive claims on behalf of collective amnesia and social forgetfulness. Collective memory is also considered in terms of the political uses of the past, where the past is an important resource for those in power. For example, the outbreak of violence in former Yugoslavia may well be seen as the outcome of the refusal to forget past events. Indeed, as will be elaborated later, much of the carefree abandon, exuberance and the proclivity of the Lebanese to embrace novelties, crazes and popular pastimes are largely symptomatic of their eagerness to distance themselves from the dreaded memories of the war. First, and doubtlessly, the most striking is the pronounced dominance of religious edifices, mosques, cathedrals, churches and shrines. Such manifestations should not be dismissed as nostalgic or transient interludes destined to "pass" into "secular", tenuous and more impersonal or virtual encounters. The resulting uncontrolled and haphazard patterns of growth were maintained during the early 1970s. The convergence of spatial and communal identities serves, in other words, both the need to search for roots and the desire to rediscover or invent a state of bliss that has been lost; it also serves as a means of escape from the trials, tribulations and fearful recollections of the war. Likewise, traditional outlets often fain the scintillating features of their global counterparts to validate their own public images and marketing ploys. In the final analysis, our self-knowledge our conception of our own character and potentialities is, to a large extent, shaped by the way in which we view our own past action (Connertoon, 1989: 22). In Lebanon, they are bound to be more problematic because of the distinctive character of some of the residues of collective terror and strife the country was besieged with for almost two decades and which set it apart from other instances of postwar reconstruction. He goes on to suggest that. Bugs (165bpm) 3. These remembrances provide the foundation for collective memory… With the rise of an online participatory culture, collective memory can be shaped by a plurality of voices, rather than by those with powerful positions in government and other large organizations, which typically control the process of memorialization. The memory of collective trauma can be adaptive as it … At least they seem less guarded when they do so. Such efforts become pertinent not by way of helping us dwell on the pathologies of civil and uncivil violence but they can also serve as the sociocultural venues for cultivating the sorely needed outlets for forgetting. If you keep on browsing, we will understand you agree with their use. Vladimir Jabotinsky states that Nationalism is a supreme value and there is no … Since to Freud memory is no more than a mental process, he advanced the thesis that in "mental life nothing that has once been formed can perish — that everything is somehow preserved in and suitable circumstances… can once more be brought to light (Freud,  1969: 6). Since Beirut as capital and imposing port city was subjected to successive planning schemes, the construction of monumental edifices, thoroughfares and public squares, it is instructive to re-examine how such attempts were perceived and implemented. So are pictorial glossy anthologies of Beirut's urban history, old postcards, maps, and other such collectibles. We often forget that for man, as for no other creature, to lose his past to lose his memory is to lose himself, to lose his identity. It was a partial covenant. This was compounded, particularly after 1920, by impassioned claims of the rival ideological currents taking root in the coastal cities. It is the ambivalence and uncertainty with which we behold the past, along with the fear of disappearance, which account for the concern for what Lowenthal aptly calls the heritage crusade. Likewise, some of the proposals also addressed issues of how to incorporate the Martyrs' Monument (which commemorates the national heroes executed by the Ottomans in 1915 and 1916), or how to envision a war memorial or a monument to celebrate or memorialize all the victims and sacrifices of the civil war. Introduction. One becomes aware of how disembedded groups and communities are recreating and re-inventing their familiar daily rhythms and the city's social fabric. “Our data demonstrate that collective memory, which exists beyond the individual level, organizes and shapes personal memory. It also creates a bond between the people of that society. In a lecture on the 15th November, Associate Professor Tatjana Louis argued that there are multiple… More explicitly they inform the entangled discourse regarding the connection between objects, memory and forgetting. A memory or memories shared or recollected by a group, as a community or culture; any collection of memories passed from one generation to the next. Narrating the Collective: Memory, Power, and Archival Space By: Bernadette Roca b.roca@utoronto.ca . On Collective Memory, Central Space and National Identity Conference lectured at the symposium "Beirut: Civil Pleasures, Civil Wars". memory, collective memory has a wider meaning. The identity of some urban Beirutis — if one were to infer this form the architectural styles of their residences, their mannerisms, fashions and other cultural manifestations of everyday life — was also a hybrid of seemingly dissonant and inconsistent features. collective memory and propagating particular beliefs and conceptions of public tragedy. Since nearly two-thirds of the rural exodus was directed toward Beirut, the capital trebled its residential population between 1932 and 1964 and grew by nearly tenfold between 1932 and 1980. Sandstone blocks, quarried in the area, were the predominant construction form. Here again this nostalgic impulse is beginning to assume some redemptive and engaging expressions. This tinge, however, need not be seen as a pathological retreat into a delusionary past. Remembering, as well as forgetting, becomes a social and highly politicized process.A point of departure for this thesis is the city of Sofia, Bulgaria. Collective memory encompasses both the shared frameworks that shape and filter ostensibly “individual” or “personal” memories and representations of the past sui generis, including official texts, commemorative ceremonies, and physical symbols such as monuments and memorials. History, in this case, is more than just a record of how man becomes what he is. The portal “Space of Harmony” based on the IT platform Rizzoma serves as the basis for the realization of the project in accordance with the rhizome principle. It literally dwarfs everything around it. It expedited the formulation of two decisive UN resolutions: 1559, calling for the immediate withdrawal of Syrian troops and security agencies from Lebanon and 1595 to set up an international commission of inquiry into the assassination of Hariri. Configure Space tools. Impotent as such efforts may seem, they express a profound disgust with the trivialization of culture so visible in the emptiness of consumerism and the nihilism of the popular culture industry. The Mithaq was also addressing perhaps the more delicate problems associated with the "fears" of the Christians and the "demands" and "grievances" of the Muslims. Sustained demonstrations and expressions of collective grievances allowed the protesters to articulate a coherent set of demands and to mobilize normally passive and quiescent groups to participate in popular grass-roots movements in support of the uprising. “Collective memory” is a term that appears frequently in the media and everyday conversation. Repeated studies have shown that the swift and extensive urbanization Lebanon was experiencing at the time was not associated, as is the case in most other societies, with a comparable decline in kinship and communal loyalties (see, for example, Gulick,  1967; Khalaf and Kongstad,  1973; Khuri,  1975). As such the task of representing or incorporating such inglorious events into Beirut's and the country's collective identity becomes, understandably, much more problematic. Otherwise, the memory of the war, like the harrowing events themselves, might well be trivialized and forgotten and, hence more likely to be repeated. It is a marvel to live in such an urban milieu where one, literally, never encounters the same familiar and unchanging street or neighborhood. It will provide an interdisciplinary framework for discussion focused on the notions of public space, socially and politically based art, and collective memory… By the time the website for the event was made accessible, it was inundated during its first week (last week of June 2004) by some 6,000 to 8,000 internet hits per day!! In: Fragoulaki, Maria and Constantakopoulou, Christy eds. Both are understandable reactions which enable traumatized groups to survive the cruelties of protracted strife. 240-258. George Naccache's pungent aphorism notwithstanding — "deux négations ne font pas une nation" — this double renunciation seemed both feasible and appropriate at the time. They are all a thriving business. Yes, and perhaps unavoidably, the uprising has given free vent to some of the vestive, light-hearted and frivolous forms of popular entertainment and fun-loving activities. This rapid growth of Beirut was not only due to internal demographic factors but, to a large extent, it was also a reflection of external pressures which generated added demand for urban space. He tells us that. The discussion poses key questions and outlines possible ways for Ecuador to address the link between history and mental health, … Adrian Forty, in fact, (2001) takes us back to the Aristotelian tradition to show us how it was inverted by Freud, Ernest Renan and, more recently, by Michel de Certeau. The waves of Palestinian refugees after 1948 and the political instability in neighboring Arab countries intensified this demand, as did the subsequent inflow of capital from the Gulf states and foreign remittances, which poured into the already lucrative real estate and construction sectors of the economy. Space of Harmony is an international project for creating and maintaining a universal cognitive space for network communications and project implementation in the collective intelligence format. But once the unrest subsides, internal cleavages and segmental loyalties resurface. Deliberate, purposeful and regulated. It is these loyalties afterall which are receptive to the needs of urbanity and civility. He invokes one of the basic premises of Hobbes who, he reminds us, treated forgetting as the basis of a just state and amnesia as the "cornerstone of the social conduct." Expressed more concretely, this reflex or impulse for seeking refuge in cloistered spatial communities is sustained by two seemingly opposed forms of self-preservation: to remember and to forget. The Contribution of Real Madrid’s First Five European Cups to the Emergence of a Common Football Space. In postwar Lebanon this crusade has become so pervasive that it is beginning to assume all the trappings and hype of a national pastime and a thriving industry. Such efforts can do much in reducing the country's chronic vulnerability to these pressures. The cactus-lined alleys were soon converted to macadamized streets. BF378.S65 H35 1992 (Ch.4) Add to My Bookmarks Export citation. Of course there were earlier signs of rural exodus. Similarly, Jedlowski (1990) also maintains that a sense of personal identity can only be achieved on the basis of personal memory. The horrors spawned by the war are particularly galling because they were not anchored in any recognizable or coherent set of causes. The threatening effacement of dilapidated vestiges of the past falling prey to early 'clean slate' ideologies ironically produced a public sphere pregnant with divergent versions and visions for past and future of city and country. 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