Talia Hibbert is a USA Today and Wall Street Journal bestselling author. : The early history of God : Yahweh and the other deities in ancient Israel / Mark S. Smith ; … Part ll: Mesopotamia, etc. We have 76 individual gods listed in the Middle Eastern pantheon of gods and spirits. Quantum leaps in cultural history took … searching for the lost civilizations of the ancient Near East. The Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology covers sources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from around 2800 to 300 BC. Change ). Ancient Near Eastern Mythology. Part ll: Mesopotamia, etc. The focus in Genesis is on the creation of the elements of nature themselves. 340 . Ancient Near Eastern Mythology SAME AS V77.0607 & V90.0125. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. These peoples interacted with each other and thus were somewhat aware of and influenced by each others culture and religion. There was much cultural contact, so that it is justified to summarize the whole region under a single term, but that does not mean, of course, that each historical period and each region should not be looked at individually for a detailed description. Thus, Marduk is not a creator, in the biblical sense of creating something out of nothing; he fashions humans out of Quingu’s blood. Before the battle a peaceful solution is proposed: create man to do the work. ea.) In the mid-1980s, Professor Goldman worked with American composer Philip Glass to create the opera Akhnaten. A Romance Writer's Year of Red-Hot Reading. (Taylor and Francis, 1991). ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN MYTHOLOGY. Ancient Near Eastern Mythology. However, unlike other ancient Near Eastern peoples, who crafted images of their gods, the Hebrew Bible generally denigrates divine images (see Exod 32:4-6, Isa 44:9-20) and in places strongly opposes … View Ancient Near Eastern Mythology Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. Whenever I hear people make one of these claims this I’ll ask, “Have you read any Ancient Near Eastern creation myths?”  Almost always they’ll admit that they have not. TARHUNNA m Near Eastern Mythology From Hittite or Luwian tarh meaning "to cross, to conquer". Rather, my point is that the writer of Genesis 1, far from being just passively “influenced” by other ancient Near Eastern literatures (as is often assumed in biblical scholarship), was consciously aware of the motifs found in these alternate accounts of origins, and made deliberate use of them in crafting the biblical creation story. Interesting but the lectures could be better structured. 3,083. Increasingly people are making the claim that the Genesis account of creation is remarkably similar to other Ancient Near Eastern creation myths. These stories originate in the period before the development of writing systems and tell how people made sense of the world through tales of gods, animals, men, women, and combined human/divine beings. his flesh and blood) is a very different concept than being made in the image of God, despite how some might try to argue that one is metaphorically similar to the other. The Sacred Texts DVD-ROM 9.0: own the wisdom of the ages! Refresh and try again. statistical studies of verb usage that have clearly demonstrated that Genesis 1 and 2 are not Hebrew poetry, Enuma Elish – The Babylonian Epic of Creation – Full Text, https://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j27_2/j27_2_99-104.pdf, https://www.livius.org/sources/content/anet/104-106-the-epic-of-atrahasis/, https://classroom.synonym.com/origin-egyptian-myth-ra-heliopolis-8290.html, http://www.sacred-texts.com/egy/pyt/pyt28.htm, https://bible.org/article/genesis-1-2-light-ancient-egyptian-creation-myths, The World Belongs to God | Grant at Aberfoyle, https://biblearchaeologyreport.com/2019/02/22/three-ancient-near-eastern-creation-myths/comment-page…, Herod the Great: An Archaeological Biography, Discussions with the Diggers: Dr. Leen Ritmeyer, Top Three Reports in Biblical Archaeology – November 2020, King Jehoiachin: An Archaeological Biography, Discussions with the Diggers: Dr. Dale W. Manor, God communicated his creation story using a common story template (ie. Nabu is the ancient Mesopotamian patron god of literacy, the rational arts, scribes and wisdom. Students in this class read myths from ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Ugarit, Anatolia, and Israel, studying the myths themselves as literary works as well as exploring the ideas and broader issues that shaped them. That means that they were written to refute religious beliefs in other gods, and suggests that these beliefs predated their own. [Shalom Goldman; Teaching Company.] Leick, Dr Gwendolyn. Near Eastern mythology books 101. Atum emerging from the primordial water is reminiscent of God hovering over the face of the waters (Gn 1:2), Atum is said to have created himself, which perhaps hints at an eternal nature. Philipp von Zabern. Data on the mythology of Ancient Near Eastern pantheons have been acquired from archaeo-logical finds, particularly from inscriptions on excavated tablets, as … To see what your friends thought of this book. There are two main reasons for this: the complexity of the religious systems, and the long period over which they developed. This is all very much in line with the rest of the ancient Near East. Usually this is followed by one or more of the following assertions: Setting aside the unsubstantiated claim of how familiar Bronze-Age Israelites would have been with Assyrian or Babylonian literature or the fact that statistical studies of verb usage that have clearly demonstrated that Genesis 1 and 2 are not Hebrew poetry, are the Ancient Near Eastern creation myths really that similar to the biblical account? Holden and Geisler’s fourth critique in saying that these myths were written to “justify or elevate the standing of particular deities and cities in the eyes of the people”, suggests that they were polemics. In Utterance 527 we read, “To say: Atum created by his masturbation in Heliopolis. Your explanation of these three creation myths illustrate quite clearly the significant differences from the Genesis account. The ancient myths of the Near East are the foundation stones of both Western and Middle Eastern cultures. Buy This Book. Buy A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology 1 by Leick, Dr Gwendolyn (ISBN: 9780415198110) from Amazon's Book Store. ( Log Out /  by The Teaching Company. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. of Lamashtu, the hermaphroditic demoness responsible for complications at childbirth and infant deaths.. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. The Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology covers sources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from around 2800 to 300 BC. ).4 At Heliopolis, the god Atum is said to have created everything. The god Enki warns Atrahasis, the hero of the story, who builds a boat to escape the flood. Second, the similarities may be accounted for by the fact that different groups were … Not the best in the Teaching Company series, but there were several stories and readings that I hadn't run across before that I'm glad to know about. Ancient Near Eastern Mythology Shalom L. Goldman. […] https://biblearchaeologyreport.com/2019/02/22/three-ancient-near-eastern-creation-myths/comment-page… […]. They are merely parroting an academic-sounding argument which they believe frees them to read Genesis 1&2 in a particular way. 2. However, when I read the Mesopotamian and Egyptian creation myths side-by-side with the book of Genesis, the substantial differences far outweigh the similarities. He, and his family, and animals enter the boat and seal the door, surviving the storm and the flood. January 28th 2003 • Vivid sections from The Adoration of Inanna of Ur, one of the great poems of the ancient Near East. The complete alphabetical list of Middle Eastern Gods and Goddess names. He was closely identified with the Hurrian god Teshub, and … 1991. A Dictionary Of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology by Gwendolyn Leick. The teacher would have done better to spend more time talking about why these various stories matter and less time talking about the history of the debates within the discipline. 7 Holden, Joseph M. and Geisler, Norman. As an English major, I enjoy reading old literature and have read numerous Ancient Near Eastern creation myths. As with the ancient Mesopotamian creation myths, their purpose is clearly to elevate a particular god from the pantheon to the status of chief god. Having seen your blog, I think I’ll enjoy following it in the future. C. Chaos (cosmogony) This page was last edited on 24 July 2020, at 10:38 (UTC). The Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology covers sources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from around 2800 to 300 BC. in Archaeology from Boston University. Rather than being a sequential account of the creation of the world and mankind as in Genesis the Egyptian myths are a scattered group of texts that one must piece together in order to understand their view(s) of creation. This is not the same as being made, Clay is used to create man, similar to the Lord creating man out of the dust of the earth (Gn 2:7), The Atrahasis Epic generally follows the Flood narrative in Genesis: judgement on mankind, great flood, wise man and animals saved in a boat, sacrifices offered afterwards, The Atrahasis Epic is polytheistic; Genesis is monotheistic, The creation of man is a solution to a battle between the gods for the purpose of doing the work the lesser gods find a “drudgery” (Lines 2 and 34). Taylor and Francis. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. 2 Adamthwaite, Murray R. “Is Genesis 1 just reworked Babylonian myth?” Journal of Creation 27(2) 2013: 101. https://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j27_2/j27_2_99-104.pdf (Accessed January 29, 2019). Gods of the Ancient Near Eastern World. 18. A rich legacy of texts, addressing all aspects of human life, has survived from this cultural center. Ancient Near Eastern Mythology opens a remarkably clear window into that ancient world, made all the more inviting because of the provocative parallels the region’s mythology shares with the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, and the opportunity those parallels provide for us to gain new perspectives on the wellsprings of the religious heritage shared by so many. A-Z List of Middle-eastern Deity Names. The great museums of Europe and America acquired their share of giant winged bulls, stamped bricks, stone statues, millions of pottery sherds and delicately carved cylinder seals. The Atrahasis epic is named after the primary character in the myth (Atrahasis means “exceedingly wise”). *FREE* shipping on eligible orders. Since the discovery of Nineveh 150 years ago, countless excavators have been searching for the lost civilizations of the ancient Near East. Kind of frustrating. The Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology covers sources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from around 2800 to 300 BC. The focus of Egyptian creation myths is on the forming of the gods, who represent various elements of nature. “Enuma Elish – The Babylonian Epic of Creation – Full Text.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Tiamat is enraged by the death of her mate, leading to a battle between Tiamat and Marduk, the champion of the younger gods. Myths can become more embellished over time, but never become more historical-sounding over time). 01 ancient near eastern myth (4 of 4) by Ziff Edu. Read, download A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology for free ( ISBNs: 9780415007627, 9781134641031, 9781134641024 ). This list may not reflect recent changes . Ancient Near Eastern Mythology opens a remarkably clear window into that ancient world, made all the more inviting because of the provocative parallels the region’s mythology shares with the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, and the opportunity those parallels provide for us to gain new perspectives on the wellsprings of the religious heritage shared by so many. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology [Leick, Dr Gwendolyn] on Amazon.com.au. In The Popular Handbook of Biblical Archaeology,Joseph Holden and Norman Geisler summarize the difficulties with the “literary-framework” hypothesis, and offer a four-point critique of scholars who make much of the similarities between Genesis and these Ancient Near Eastern creation myths: 1. 1 post 7. were also fascinating. There is no distinction between the creator and the creature in the Enuma Elish. Thus, at Memphas, Ptah is the creator god, while at Hermopolis, the Ogdoad – their four main gods and their consorts – act as creators. See also Near Eastern mythology names for a broader list. He put his phallus in his fist, to excite desire thereby. Through accessible entries this Dictionary provides a scholarly guide to this complex and fascinating area. 02 The Emergence of Civilization in the Near East (1 of 3) by Ziff Edu. While the creation of the gods/the world are described in the Heliopolis story, very little is said about the creation of animals and mankind in this or any other Egyptian Creation myths. {"ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN MYTHOLOGY"} > 7. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Middle Eastern mythology › Middle Eastern pantheon. This series of 24 lectures introduces the great myths of the ancient Near East, the region bound by Egypt and the Mediterranean in the west, Iran in the east, Anatolia in … 4 Bradley, Jeremy. In Egyptian mythology, the creation stories are usually associated with the primary god worshiped in a particular city. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology by Gwendolyn Leick. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Last modified on January,3, 2017. https://www.livius.org/sources/content/anet/104-106-the-epic-of-atrahasis/ (Accessed January 29, 2019). Ancient Near Eastern mythology. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology | ISBN 9780415198110 direct en eenvoudig te bestellen bij Boekhandel De Slegte. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Her specialty is ancient Mesopotamia. The title of the course should have been "A Reflection on How Ancient Near Eastern Mythology Influenced The Bible". Monsters and demons in the ancient and medieval worlds: papers presented in honor of Edith Porada. Students in this class read myths from ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Ugarit, Anatolia, and Israel, studying the myths themselves as literary works as well as exploring the ideas and broader issues that shaped them. joeyraggs. Ancient Near Eastern Mythology opens a remarkably clear window into that ancient world, made all the more inviting because of the provocative parallels the region’s mythology shares with the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, and the opportunity those parallels provide for us to gain new perspectives on the wellsprings of the religious heritage shared by so many. God in Genesis reflects a completely different kind of character, much harder for humans to understand. ( Log Out /  Call Number: BL1060 L44 1991 - 3rd floor (Library Use Only) ISBN: 0415007623. Dr Gwendolyn Leick and Gwendo Leick Dr: A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology. Ancient Near Eastern Myths and the Bible. Class aims: to approach ancient Near Eastern and Mediterranean civilizations through studying their myths and legends; to see what themes unite them and what themes make them distinct. 19. Routledge, London (2001). The different way that myths were viewed - as history, as science, etc. When one reads an Egyptian creation myth, and then the creation account from Genesis 1 and 2, one wonders why certain scholars seem to see so many similarities. Lévi-Strauss, C.: Myth and meaning. The Popular Handbook of Archaeology and the Bible (Harvest House Publishers, Eugene, Oregon, 2013), p. 362. Get this from a library! Ancient Near Eastern Mythology Ancient Near Eastern Mythology by Dr Gwendolyn Leick. ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN MYTHOLOGY HINE 113 Office: H&SS 4012; phone 858-534-6187; email wpropp@ucsd.edu; office hours Tuesday 12:30-2:30. 6 Shetter, Tony L. “Genesis 1-2 In Light Of Ancient Egyptian Creation Myths.” Bible.org. “The Origin of the Egyptian Myth of Ra & Heliopolis” Classroom. The ancient cultures of what would culminate in the gods of Greece and Rome were centered in the area bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea as well as in the Fertile Crescent. Increasingly people are making the claim that the Genesis account of creation is remarkably similar to other Ancient Near Eastern creation myths. June 26, 2017. from the Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations Department at the University of Toronto and holds her B.A. Smith, M.S. In this myth, the gods are birthed out of swirling waters, which divide into fresh water, becoming the god Apsu and salty water, becoming the goddess Tiamat. Writing Ancient Near Eastern Mythology Fan Fiction: A Creative Way for Students to Engage with Course Content. Ancient Near Eastern religion knew an elaborate system of benevolent, neutral and malevolent demons (which more resembled Greek daemons than the Christian concept of evil demons), and much of medicine consisted of exorcisms, e.g. However, when one reads both accounts side-by-side it becomes apparent how different they really are. The ancient myths of the Near East are the foundation stones of both Western and Middle Eastern cultures. Ancient Near Eastern Mythology opens a remarkably clear window into that ancient world, made all the more inviting because of the provocative parallels the region’s mythology shares with the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, and the opportunity those parallels provide for us to gain new perspectives on the wellsprings of the religious heritage shared by so many.… The Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology covers sources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from around 2800 to 300 BC. NE LG. While clay is used in the creation of man, so is the flesh and blood of a god who is slaughtered (Lines 224-226), as opposed to the peaceful creation of man in Genesis through dust and the breath of God. On the other hand Genesis presumes (and the Bible declares elsewhere) God’s eternal uncreated nature, The Heliopolis creation myth is polytheistic; Genesis is monotheistic, In the Heliopolis creation myth, Atum masturbates to create other gods. Usually this is followed by one or more of the following assertions: God communicated his creation story using a common story template (ie. While I enjoyed how many of the stories were shown to have parallels in the Bible. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology The lesser gods were being burdened with the work and decided to rebel. Download it A Dictionary Of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology books also available in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format for read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. The Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology covers sources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from around 2800 to 300 BC. Moreover, the point of this blog is to focus on the creation element of the myth and here we see far more differences than similarities. These names occur in the mythologies of the Sumerians, an ancient people of Mesopotamia. The gods in these myths reflect the common character weaknesses and subsequent actions of humans, suggesting that these myths were created by humans. Mere humans wouldn’t have made up a creation story like that. Ancient Near Eastern Mythology (The Great Courses) Audio Cassette – January 1, 2003 by Professor Shalom L. Goldman (Author) 1.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating. While Enlil is initially furious with Enki for thwarting his plan they eventually agree to control humans in other ways.3. While there are a few similarities, this crude and bloody tale bears little resemblance to the orderly, sequential creation account in Genesis. By purchasing books through this website, you support our non-profit organization. The Sacred Texts DVD-ROM 9.0: own the wisdom of the ages! https://classroom.synonym.com/origin-egyptian-myth-ra-heliopolis-8290.html (Accessed January 29, 2019). Good introduction to the mythological history of the near east. Ancient Near Eastern mythology. Publisher. 19. -- Twenty-four lectures (30 min. Humans are created so that they could do the menial work allowing the gods to rest (Tablet VI, line 8), whereas in the Genesis account humans are created on the sixth day as the only creature made in the image of God Himself. The creation of the world is a result of Marduk’s defeat of Tiamat whom he cuts in two, with the Euphrates and Tigris rivers flowing from her eyes, the mountains being formed from her breasts and the heavens being wedged up her crotch (Tablet V, lines 55, 57 & 61). The Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology covers sources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from around 2800 to 300 BC. ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN MYTHOLOGY HINE 113 Office: H&SS 4012; phone 858-534-6187; email wpropp@ucsd.edu; office hours Wed/Fri 11:00-11:50. Author. -- Twenty-four lectures (30 min. Many … vol. [15] Finkel, I.L. Ancient Near Eastern Myths and the Bible. Much more accurate. Get this from a library! The focus here is on the early religions which would have an impact on the later cultures of Egypt, Greece, and Rome in … We now know the names of thousands of gods and goddesses, the words of hymns and litanies, the daily procedures of the Babylonian cult, as well as a growing number of mythological tales. 3,083. vanorsow. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology. vanorsow. These stories originate in the period before the development of writing systems and tell how people made sense of … Third, we now know that the Genesis account is not dependent on, or identified with, any earlier Mesopotamian, Egyptian, or Assyrian creation tradition because of the recognized direction of myth (ie. Publication date 1998 Topics Ancient Near Eastern Mythology Collection folkscanomy_history; folkscanomy; additional_collections Language English. The Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology covers sources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from around 2800 to 300 BC. They agree to this and slaughter the god Aw-ilu, and mix his flesh and blood with clay to make man. 3.1 Introduction. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology. Be the first to ask a question about Ancient Near Eastern Mythology. ( Log Out /  Attributed to Enheduanna (who was appointed by her father, Sargon, as priestess of Sin, the moon goddess), the poem was, along with The Sargon Legend, a rare instance of two surviving documents from the same family, and gives us information about the place of women in the rituals of ancient Near East … ( Log Out /  Ancient Near Eastern Mythology Part I ... His doctoral work (in the study of Hebrew and ancient Near Eastern texts) was done at New York University, where he received his Ph.D. in 1986. First, the critical scholars’ overemphasis on similarities has blinded their eyes to the many differences that set the accounts apart. Ancient Near Eastern Myths and the Bible 7. This was the name of the Hittite god of the weather, storms, and the sky, and the slayer of the dragon Illuyanka. We’d love your help. Download it A Dictionary Of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology books also available in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format for read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. The Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology covers sources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from around 2800 to 300 BC. The flood narrative in the Atrahasis Epic is certainly similar to the flood narrative in Genesis, although these similarities are just as logically explained by the fact that both refer to a common historical event, as they are by assuming Moses copied a Babylonian myth. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. BA'AL m Semitic Mythology, Biblical Hebrew Hebrew form of Semitic ba'l meaning "lord, master, possessor". Atum is so closely related to the sun god Ra, who was worshiped at Heliopolic, the he eventually became known as Atum-Ra. ... How to Study the Bible with Ancient Near Eastern Texts: The "Eridu Genesis" and the Book of Genesis - Duration: 16:16. The Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology covers sources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from around 2800 to 300 BC. Share. 2780 – 2250 B.C. Ancient Near Eastern Mythology (The Great Courses) Audio Cassette – January 1, 2003 by Professor Shalom L. Goldman (Author) 1.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating. One could pull some lines out of the Enuma Elish and some Bible verses out of context in an attempt to claim they’re similar. 3050. The Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology covers sources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from around 2800 to 300 BC. The ancient myths of the Near East are the foundation stones of both Western and Middle Eastern cultures. In The Popular Handbook of Biblical Archaeology, Joseph Holden and Norman Geisler summarize the difficulties with the “literary-framework” hypothesis, and offer a four-point critique of scholars who make much of the similarities between Genesis and these Ancient Near Eastern creation myths: My purpose has been to analyze the popular theory that the creation account in the book of Genesis follows the same literary framework, or is strikingly similar to other Ancient Near Eastern creation myths. The younger gods are warned of this and strike back by killing Apsu. All readings in English. In Assyrian and Babylonian mythology the seven evil … AND THE ISRAELITE RELIGION . Ancient Near Eastern Religion: Frequently Asked Questions [External Site]: The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ The Canaanite Mythology FAQ The Hittite Mythology Reference Sumerian Mythology FAQ. The Near Eastern view of history was cyclical and assigned little importance to the past or to the future. Share with: Link: Copy link. Routledge. Uniek aanbod (tweedehands) boeken. Marduk wins and creates mankind from the blood of the god Quingu, who is blamed for the conflict and executed.1. Humans increase, and their noise disturbs the god Enlil who decides to destroy all humanity with a flood. It was particularly applied to the god Hadad. Pages in category "Ancient Near East mythology" This category contains only the following page. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus (circa 484-425 B.C.) This would tend to prove that Genesis was written before these myths and not the other way around as so many liberal theologians insist. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology. These stories come primarily from the pyramid texts, decorations on the tomb walls that date back to the Old Kingdom (ca. The gods in the Atrahasis Epic are complaining, spiteful, warring beings. On shelves and drawers rest tens of thousands of clay-tablets, each one carefully numbered. Ancient Near Eastern Religion: Frequently Asked Questions [External Site]: The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ The Canaanite Mythology FAQ The Hittite Mythology Reference Sumerian Mythology FAQ. Academics in Ancient Near Eastern creation myths is the Ancient myths of the Sumerian gods – the Babylonian Epic creation... Few similarities, this crude and bloody tale bears little resemblance to the past or to the many differences set. Distinction between the creator and the lesser the Igigi-gods: Mesopotamia at Heliopolis, similarities... 2005. https: //bible.org/article/genesis-1-2-light-ancient-egyptian-creation-myths ( Accessed January 29, 2019 ). ’ is named the! Demons in the ruins of Ashurbanipal ’ s Reception and Life in Heaven, Utterances 523-533. Sacred... The other way around as so many Teaching Company courses about the (... Of Inanna of Ur, one of the Near East are the foundation of... 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